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AUGER PRIME

 

 

Principle

Fig.1 : the surface scintillator detector on top of the water-Cherenkov tank for the Auger upgrade

Fig.2 : test bench for the light yield measurements as a function of the temperature

 

Fig. 3. : a fiber bundle of 96 pieces, fiber ends polished with machine. With this design, further holes can be drilled in case one of the fibers breaks and needs to be changed

The Pierre Auger Observatory upgrade foresees the installation of Scintillator-based Surface Detectors (SSD) placed above the Water-Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) to add an extra measurement of the particles in the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) independent of the measurements made with the WCDs, fig.1. The SSD has to be reliable, easy to realize and install, and has to have minimal maintenance when working in the Pampa for a lifetime of 10 years. The present design of the Scintillator Surface Detectors basic unit consists of two modules of ≈ 2m2 plastic scintillator, which are read-out by wavelength-shifting (WLS) optical fibers coupled to a single photo-detector. The active part of each module is a scintillator plane made by 24 bars 1.6m long of extruded polystyrene scintillator. Each bar, 1cm thick and 5cm wide, is equipped with two holes along the bar length to host the optical fiber needed to collect the scintillation light on the photo-detector.

As part of the R&D phase of the SSD, we realized a small cosmic ray telescope to test many scintillator/fiber combinations in order to select these providing the highest light yield per MIP. More in detail, we tested casted and extruded scintillators, from different vendors (GNKD from China and FNAL from US), with different geometry and cross sections (holes and grooves), and coupled with different optical fibers (Kuraray Y11(200)MSJ diam 1.0mm, Saint-Gobain BCF91A diam 1.2mm and Saint-Gobain BCF9929AMC diam 1.2mm).

As part of the R&D phase of the SSD, we realized a small cosmic ray telescope to test many scintillator/fiber combinations in order to select these providing the highest light yield per MIP. More in detail, we tested casted and extruded scintillators, from different vendors (GNKD from China and FNAL from US), with different geometry and cross sections (holes and grooves), and coupled with different optical fibers (Kuraray Y11(200)MSJ diam 1.0mm, Saint-Gobain BCF91A diam 1.2mm and Saint-Gobain BCF9929AMC diam 1.2mm).

Since the SSD will be installed in the field in Argentina, experiencing a temperature excursion between -5°C and + 40°C, for a selected number of detector’s configurations, we studied the effect of the temperature variations on the light yield, with the use of a climate chamber. The experimental set-up used for this study is presented in fig.2.

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In the framework of the SSD development, we proposed as well a mechanical solution to couple the optical fiber bundle to the PMT entrance window, fig. 3.

 

Contact  : G. Hull

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IPN

Institut de Physique Nucléaire Orsay - 15 rue Georges CLEMENCEAU - 91406 ORSAY (FRANCE)
UMR 8608 - CNRS/IN2P3

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